Quality management in hospitality

The concept of quality management in hospitality industry is very important.  The hospitality industry is one of the most important industries in the world that has been growing at unprecedented rate owing to the increased rate of globalization.  The increased activities in tourism industry and increased international trade are among the factors that have led to increased growth of the hospitality industry.  There has been increased trend towards standardization of services in the hospitality industry and this is being driven by the need for enhancement of quality of services. As the level of competition increase in the industry, the competitive advantage has been created through provision of high quality services.  In order to understand the trend in enhancement of quality of services in the industry, this paper will review a number of studies on the subject.

Literature review

In their article The importance of total quality management in hospitality: The case of Croatia, Pavlic and Raguz (2009) discusses how total quality management has been used in Croatia in enhance of quality in the   hospitality industry.  In this article, authors acknowledge that total quality management is a concept that has gained increased use in the hospitality industry. In recognition of the importance of quality management in the hospitality industry, the authors acknowledge that ISO 9000 has been an important step in setting standards for the implementation of total quality management in the industry.  Enhancement of quality in the hospitality industry is cited to increase the level of customer satisfaction, increased sales and better profits for business in the hospitality industry.

The authors show the case of Croatia.  The country has been undergoing a number of changes in the recent past which have been caused by transition.  In Croatia, quality enhancement has been seen in different industries but most importance changes have been experienced in the hospitality industry.  Pavlic and Raguz (2009) shows that transformational business strategy has been achieve in the hospitality industry through quality control of their products and services offered.   There are already two hotels in the country which have already achieved ISO 9002 and are already applying total quality management in their organizations.  These hotels have already put in place a quality system that has greatly improved quality of products and services. This study shows the importance of reinforcing quality management to enhanced quality in hospitality industry.

The above concept of total quality management is also reinforced in other studies. In their study on Total Quality Management in the Hospitality Industry, Saunders and Graham (2008) the concept has achieved a great deal of success in the hospitality industry.  Total Quality Management (TQM) is however sometimes difficult to implement in hospitality industry owing to the difficult in identifying some of the most appropriate quality measures. This study identified the need to use the quality triangle in hospitality industry including focus on customers, team work approach to unify goals, and use of scientific approach in decision making. Through comparing TQM in manufacturing and hospitality industry, the study gives important review on how hospitality industry can use the TQM concept to improve their services.  This study is important since it shows how organization in the hospitality industry can actually use TQM concept to enhance quality in their products and services.  It is important to understand that TQM is s wholesome approach which doesn’t only look at one aspect of quality management but concentrate on quality in on all aspects.

HACCP is one of the most important aspects in TQM that defines quality. HACCP defines the important points at which quality should be ensured. Through understanding the important points in the process of food production or offering of service where quality can be enhanced, it become easier to enhance quality. In her study on HACCP for the hospitality industry: history in the making, Eunice (2008) notes that while HACCP is an important factor in quality enhancement process  which has been used in large food manufacturers,  it has bee slowly employed in the small business especially in the hospitality industry.  The study found out that there are more than eleven barriers to enhancement of HACCP in enhancement of quality.  This has one of the most comprehensive studies in implementation of HAACP in the hospitality industry.   The findings of the study are important since they show the importance of HACCP in enhancement of quality of products and services in hospitality industry.

Quality enhancement is important in determining the rating of hotels in hospitality industry. It is also related to princes of products and services in the industry. In their study on Quality and Pricing in the Hotel Industry: The Mobil “Star” and Hotel Pricing Behavior, Henley, Cotter, and Duncan (2004) argues that price is closely tied to pricing of products.  They argue that quality is one of the most important determinants of price not only in hospitality industry but also in other industries as well.  However, they concede that it is fortunate that in the hospitality industry, quality evaluation and prince information are availed for consumer and have also been published in consumer guides. They give the example of The Mobili Travel Guides as one of the most important sources of information regarding quality and price of products offered in hospitality industry. The author sought to find whether hotels usually do change their pricing and quality strategy when their rating is affected in such consumer guides.  This study found out that price is tied to quality of services and products. Most hotels raises their prices when their rating goes higher and lowers the consequently when their rating is lowered.  The results of this study are important to enhancement of quality in hospitality industry. It reveals that quality of service offered has an effect on rating of the hotels and hence the price of their product.

There are different factors affecting the quality of services in the hospitality industry. In their review of different factors affecting quality in the Malaysian Hotels, Sohail et al., (2000) shows that the growth of tourisms industry in different parts of the world have led to increased attention to quality assurance in the hospitality industry. Through a survey in 50 mid-priced hotel that looked into influence of consumer perception on quality of services, the study found out that different factors like previous acquaintance with the hotel, perception and efficiency, perception of value, type of restaurant services, quality of conference facilities, and staff attitudes are among the important factors that affect consumer perception of quality in a given hotel. This study is important to operators in the industry who want to improve their quality since they would focus on these factors.  This study implies that to enhance quality, hotels must understand the important factors that are used by consumers to assess quality of services and products and henceforth improve them.

Employees have a lot of influence on the quality of service offered by any organization. Employees are the main point of contact between organization and the customers. Following the HACCP model, this is an important point and there should be efforts to enhance quality at this point. In deed, this point has been reinforced by Kattara, Dina, and El-Said   in their study on The impact of employee behavior on customers’ service quality perceptions and overall satisfaction.  In this study, Kattara et al., (2008) attempted to investigate the relationship between the positive and negative employee behavior, customer perception of the quality of service offered and the satisfaction of the employees. This study revealed that employee behaviors whether negative or positive are well correlated with customer satisfaction. Through review of past and current literature, the study found out that customer perception is mainly influenced by the quality of service they received at a given hotel.  This study is important enhancement of quality in the hospitality industry since it looked at the relationship between employees and their customers.